LaVan & Neidenberg® receive many inquiries about the court's ability to garnish a veteran's disability compensation. The short answer is, yes. There are certain circumstances in which the court can write an order to garnish your disability benefits. Below is an excerpt from a memo written by the Office of Child Support Enforcement, Administration for Children and Families:
The test to determine if your benefits are subject to garnishment is whether the payment is remuneration (payment) for employment as defined in section 459 [42 U.S.C. 659(a) and (h)]. While Federal salaries fit this test, and Title II Social Security Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance benefits (OASDI) can be garnished (entitlement to these benefits is based on employee contributions into FICA), VA monetary benefits, entitlement to which is generally based on either the veteran's disability and wartime service (pension) or disability from service-connected injury or disease (compensation), is generally not considered remuneration (payment) for employment.
However, the Social Security Act and the statutes governing benefit payment by the Department of Veterans Affairs do provide for processes by which dependents may obtain financial support from veterans' benefits under certain circumstances. Below are two examples highlighting the laws or regulations under which benefits paid by the Department of Veterans Affairs can be paid to dependents to fulfill child support obligations.
Example #1: The Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 659(h)(1)(A)(ii)(V)] provides that if a veteran is eligible to receive military retired/retainer pay and has waived a portion of his/her retired/retainer pay in order to receive disability compensation from VA, that portion of the VA benefit received in lieu of retired/retainer pay is subject to garnishment.
Example #2: The Department of Veterans Affairs has issued regulations pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 5307 that provide for an apportionment of VA benefits between the veteran and his/her dependents under certain circumstances. VA regulations at 38 CFR Section 3.450(a)(1)(ii) provide that, if the veteran is not residing with his or her spouse, or if the veteran's children are not residing with the veteran and the veteran is not reasonably discharging his or her responsibility for the spouse's or children's support, all or any part of the veteran's pension, compensation, or emergency officers' retirement pay may be apportioned.
Additionally, where a hardship is shown to exist, 38 CFR Section 3.451 authorizes a special apportionment of a beneficiary's pension, compensation, emergency officers' retirement pay, or dependency and indemnity compensation between the veteran and his or her dependents. The apportionment is based on the facts in the individual case, and may not cause undue hardship to the other persons in interest. Factors which determine the basis for special apportionment include the amount of veteran benefits payable, other resources and income of the veteran and those dependents in whose behalf apportionment is claimed, and special needs of the veteran, the dependents, and those applying for apportionment. Ordinarily, the VA considers that an apportionment of more than 50 percent of the veteran's benefits would constitute undue hardship on the veteran, while an apportionment of less than 20 percent would not provide a reasonable amount for any apportionee.
The maximum that the Defense Finance & Accounting Service (DFAS) will garnish, outlined in 5 CFR §581.402, is the following: